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Semester One Final

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.

According to the graph above, during which interval is the cat at rest?
 a. 0.0–5.0 s c. 10.0–15.0 s b. 5.0–10.0 s d. 15.0–20.0 s

2.

According to the graph above, during which interval does the cat have the greatest positive velocity?
 a. 0.0–5.0 s c. 10.0–15.0 s b. 5.0–10.0 s d. 15.0–20.0 s

3.

Acceleration is defined as
 a. a rate of displacement. c. the change in velocity. b. the rate of change of displacement. d. the rate of change of velocity.

4.

Which of the following is the equation for acceleration?
 a. c. a = DvDt b. d. 5.

When a car’s velocity is positive and its acceleration is negative, what is happening to the car’s motion?
 a. The car slows down. c. The car travels at constant speed. b. The car speeds up. d. The car remains at rest. 6.

The graph above describes the motion of a cyclist. The graph illustrates that the acceleration of the cyclist
 a. is constant. c. increases. b. decreases. d. is zero. 7.

What does the graph above illustrate about acceleration?
 a. The acceleration varies. b. The acceleration is zero. c. The acceleration is constant. d. The acceleration increases then becomes constant.

8.

In the graph above, how does the acceleration at A compare with the acceleration at B?
 a. The acceleration at A is positive and less than the acceleration at B. b. The acceleration at B is positive and less than the acceleration at A. c. The accelerations at A and B are each zero. d. The accelerations at A and B cannot be determined.

9.

A baseball catcher throws a ball vertically upward and catches it in the same spot as it returns to the mitt. At what point in the ball’s path does it experience zero velocity and nonzero acceleration at the same time?
 a. midway on the way up b. at the top of its path c. the instant it leaves the catcher’s hand d. the instant before it arrives in the catcher’s mitt

10.

Which of the following is a physical quantity that has both magnitude and direction?
 a. vector c. resultant b. scalar d. frame of reference

11.

Which of the following is an example of a vector quantity?
 a. velocity c. volume b. temperature d. mass 12.

In the figure above, which diagram represents the vector addition C = A + B?
 a. I c. III b. II d. IV

13.

For the winter, a duck flies 10.0 m/s due south against a gust of wind with a speed of 2.5 m/s. What is the resultant velocity of the duck?
 a. 12.5 m/s south c. 7.5 m/s south b. –12.5 m/s south d. –7.5 m/s south

14.

An ant on a picnic table travels 3.0 ´ 10 cm eastward, then 25 cm northward, and finally 15 cm westward. What is the magnitude of the ant’s displacement relative to its original position?
 a. 70 cm c. 52 cm b. 57 cm d. 29 cm

15.

A track star in the long jump goes into the jump at 12 m/s and launches herself at 20.0° above the horizontal. What is the magnitude of her horizontal displacement? (Assume no air resistance and that a = –g = –9.81 m/s .)
 a. 4.6 m c. 13 m b. 9.2 m d. 15 m

16.

Which of the following is the cause of an acceleration?
 a. speed c. force b. inertia d. velocity

17.

A newton is equivalent to which of the following quantities?
 a. kg c. kg·m/s b. kg·m/s d. kg·(m/s)  18.

The free-body diagram shown above represents a car being pulled by a towing cable. In the diagram, the 5800 N force is
 a. the gravitational force acting on the car. b. the backward force the road exerts on the car. c. the upward force the road exerts on the car. d. the force exerted by the towing cable on the car.

19.

A late traveler rushes to catch a plane, pulling a suitcase with a force directed 30.0° above the horizontal. If the horizontal component of the force on the suitcase is 60.6 N, what is the force exerted on the handle?
 a. 53.0 N c. 65.2 N b. 70.0 N d. 95.6 N

20.

A sculpture is suspended in equilibrium by two cables, one from a wall and the other from the ceiling of a museum gallery. Cable 1 applies a horizontal force to the right of the sculpture and has a tension, F . Cable 2 applies a force upward and to the left at an angle of 37.0° to the negative x-axis and has a tension, F . The gravitational force on the sculpture is 5.00 ´ 10 N. What is F ?
 a. 4440 N c. 8310 N b. 6640 N d. 3340 N

21.

Which statement about the acceleration of an object is correct?
 a. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net external force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. b. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net external force acting on the object and directly proportional to the mass of the object. c. The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to the net external force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. d. The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to the net external force acting on the object and directly proportional to the mass of the object.

22.

An airplane with a mass of 1.20 ´ 10 kg tows a glider with a mass of 0.60 ´ 10 kg. If the airplane propellers provide a net forward thrust of 3.60 ´ 10 N, what is the acceleration of the glider? (Disregard friction.)
 a. 2.00 m/s c. 6.00 m/s b. 3.00 m/s d. 9.80 m/s 23.

A sled traveling at a speed of 3.0 m/s slows to a stop 4.0 m from the point where its passenger rolled off. What is the magnitude of the horizontal net force that slows the 110 N sled? (Assume ag = 9.81 m/s .)
 a. 130 N c. 37 N b. 34 N d. 13 N

24.

A sled weighing 1.0 ´ 10 N is held in place on a frictionless 20.0° slope by a rope attached to a stake at the top. The rope is parallel to the slope. What is the normal force of the slope acting on the sled?
 a. 94 N c. 37 N b. 47 N d. 34 N

25.

What are the units of the coefficient of friction?
 a. N c. N b. 1/N d. The coefficient of friction has no units.

26.

An ice skater moving at 10.0 m/s coasts to a halt in 1.0 ´ 10 m on a smooth ice surface. What is the coefficient of friction between the ice and the skates?
 a. 0.025 c. 0.102 b. 0.051 d. 0.205

27.

Work is done when
 a. the displacement is not zero. b. the displacement is zero. c. the force is zero. d. the force and displacement are perpendicular.

28.

What is the common formula for work? Assume that W is the work, F is a constant force, v is the change in velocity, and d is the displacement.
 a. W = FDv c. W = Fd b. W = Fd d. W = F d

29.

In which of the following scenarios is no net work done?
 a. A car accelerates down a hill. b. A car travels at constant speed on a flat road. c. A car decelerates on a flat road. d. A car decelerates as it travels up a hill.

30.

A horizontal force of 200 N is applied to move a 55 kg television set across a 10 m level surface. What is the work done by the 200 N force on the television set?
 a. 550 J c. 6000 J b. 2000 J d. 11000 J

31.

Which of the following formulas would be used to directly calculate the kinetic energy of an object with mass m bouncing up and down on a spring with spring constant k?
 a. c. b. d. 32.

Ball A has triple the mass and speed of ball B. What is the ratio of the kinetic energy of ball A to ball B.
 a. 3 c. 9 b. 6 d. 27

33.

What is the kinetic energy of a 0.135 kg baseball thrown at 40.0 m/s?
 a. 54.0 J c. 108 J b. 87.0 J d. 216 J

34.

A 3.00 kg toy falls from a height of 1.00 m. What will the kinetic energy of the toy be just before the toy hits the ground? (Assume no air resistance and that g = 9.81 m/s .)
 a. 0.98 J c. 29.4 J b. 9.8 J d. 294 J

35.

Which of the following are not units of power?
 a. hp c. W b. J d. J/s

36.

How much power is required to lift a 2.0 kg mass at a speed of 2.0 m/s?
 a. 2.0 J c. 9.8 J b. 4.0 J d. 39 J

37.

What is the average power supplied by a 60.0 kg person running up a flight of stairs a vertical distance of 4.0 m in 4.2 s?
 a. 57 W c. 560 W b. 240 W d. 670 W

38.

Which of the following equations can be used to directly calculate an object’s momentum, p?
 a. p = mv c. p = FDt b. d. Dp = FDt

39.

What are the SI units for momentum?
 a. N·m c. kg·m/s b. J d. kg·m/s 40.

When comparing the momentum of two moving objects, which of the following is correct?
 a. The object with the higher velocity will have less momentum if the masses are equal. b. The more massive object will have less momentum if its velocity is greater. c. The less massive object will have less momentum if the velocities are the same. d. The more massive object will have less momentum if the velocities are the same.

41.

A child with a mass of 23 kg rides a bike with a mass of 5.5 kg at a velocity of 4.5 m/s to the south. Compare the momentum of the child with the momentum of the bike.
 a. Both the child and the bike have the same momentum. b. The bike has a greater momentum than the child. c. The child has a greater momentum than the bike. d. Neither the child nor the bike has momentum.

42.

Which of the following has the greatest momentum?
 a. a tortoise with a mass of 275 kg moving at a velocity of 0.55 m/s b. a hare with a mass of 2.7 kg moving at a velocity of 7.5 m/s c. a turtle with a mass of 91 kg moving at a velocity of 1.4 m/s d. a roadrunner with a mass of 1.8 kg moving at a velocity of 6.7 m/s

43.

Which of the following equations can be used to directly calculate the change in an object’s momentum?
 a. p = mv c. p = FDt b. d. Dp = FDt

44.

If a force is exerted on an object, which statement is true?
 a. A large force always produces a large change in the object’s momentum. b. A large force produces a large change in the object’s momentum only if the force is applied over a very short time interval. c. A small force applied over a long time interval can produce a large change in the object’s momentum. d. A small force always produces a large change in the object’s momentum.

45.

A 0.2 kg baseball is pitched with a velocity of 40 m/s and is then batted to the pitcher with a velocity of 60 m/s. What is the magnitude of change in the ball’s momentum?
 a. 2 kg·m/s c. 8 kg·m/s b. 4 kg·m/s d. 20 kg·m/s

46.

The law of conservation of momentum states that
 a. the total initial momentum of all objects interacting with one another usually equals the total final momentum. b. the total initial momentum of all objects interacting with one another does not equal the total final momentum. c. the total momentum of all objects interacting with one another is zero. d. the total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects.

47.

When an object is moving with uniform circular motion, the centripetal acceleration of the object
 a. is circular. b. is perpendicular to the plane of motion. c. is zero. d. is directed toward the center of motion.

A child rides a bicycle in a circular path with a radius of 2.0 m. The tangential speed of the bicycle is 2.0 m/s. The combined mass of the bicycle and the child is 43 kg.

48.

What is the magnitude of the bicycle’s centripetal acceleration?
 a. 1.0 m/s2 c. 4.0 m/s2 b. 2.0 m/s2 d. 8.0 m/s2

49.

Which of the following equations expresses Newton’s law of universal gravitation?
 a. c. b. d. 50.

Two small masses that are 10.0 cm apart attract each other with a force of 10.0 N. When they are 5.0 cm apart, these masses will attract each other with what force?
(G = 6.673 ´ 10 N·m /kg )
 a. 5.0 N c. 20.0 N b. 2.5 N d. 40.0 N 51.

In the figure above, according to Kepler’s laws of planetary motion,
 a. A = A . c. if Dt = Dt , then the orbit is circular. b. Dt > Dt . d. if Dt = Dt , then A = A .

52.

The equation for the speed of an object in circular orbit is . What does m represent in this equation?
 a. the mass of the sun c. the mass of the central object b. the mass of Earth d. the mass of the orbiting object

53.

How would the speed of Earth’s orbit around the sun change if Earth’s mass increased by 4 times?
 a. It would increase by a factor of 2. c. It would decrease by a factor of 2. b. It would increase by a factor of 4. d. The speed would not change.

54.

Suppose a doorknob is placed at the center of a door. Compared with a door whose knob is located at the edge, what amount of force must be applied to this door to produce the torque exerted on the other door?
 a. one-half as much c. one-fourth as much b. two times as much d. four times as much

55.

A girl pushes a box that has a mass of 450 N up an incline. If the girl exerts a force of 150 N along the incline, what is the mechanical advantage of the incline?
 a. 0.33 c. 300 b. 3.0 d. 33%